By Harsh Thakor
DIP OUR BLOOD IN MEMORY OF IMMORTAL COMRADE CHANDRA PULLA REDDY ON 35TH DEATH ANNIVERSARY TODAY.ONE OF THE PIONEERS IN THE STRUGGLE AGAINST REVISIONISM AND ARCHITECT OF FORMULA OF RESISTANCE STRUGGLE IN EAST GODAVRI DISTRICT.NO DOUBT MADE SERIOUS MISTAKES IN PRACTICE OF MASSLINE BUT TILL HIS LAST BREATH SHIMMERED THE TORCH OF MARXISM-LENINISM -MAOISM TO RE-UNITE THE COMMUNIST PARTY.
Tribute to Comrade Chandra Pulla Reddy on 35th death anniversary on November 9th
On November 9th a few days ago we celebrated the 35th death anniversary of Comrade Chandra Pulla Reddy, one of the greatest Communist revolutionary crusaders ever in the history of
developed resistance struggle in East Godavri
district. Till his last breadth he combated revisionism like a boulder and
shimmered light of Mao Zedong (毛泽东) thought resisting the most fierce gale. Sadly there was
no all-India function to celebrate his birth centenary on January 19th,
in 2017. Morally this tribute should have been delivered in commemoration of
birth centenary of Comrade C.P.
No doubt he made serious errors of left and right variety but strived to practice mass line to the best of his understanding. He was branded as a revisionist in the Vinod Mishra mould by the Communist Party of India(Marxist Leninist) central Team in 1978 who failed to uphold any of his revolutionary credentials, which was major blunder in the revolutionary camp in sectarian approach.
Few Comrades worked as tenaciously to unite the party or project such an All-India perspective. His group also led the biggest trade Union movement within the ML-camp. His line and practice corrected many of the left adventurist errors of Charu Mazumdar In agrarian revolutionary practice the movement led by C.P. Reddy contained greater content of massline than what the Peoples War Group practiced in subsequent decades.
He displayed utmost humility even rejecting the offer of being general secretary of the party in 1975. His language had a subtle flowing style which could easily be comprehended by readers and common folk.
With dialectical methodology he strived to build a programme adhering to the mass-line His thesis and guidance of resistance struggle was remarkable, which bore many similarities to writings of Telengana armed struggle and that of CPC in revolutionary struggle. He strived for maintaining party secrecy till the end and was at horn in the flesh to the brand of Vinod Mishra revisionism.
With deep Marxist-Leninist precision he analyzed aspects of Nationality like Kashmir and Punjab as well as revisionism in
and Soviet Union.
C.P. Redy gained his baptism to Communist Movements from Puchchala palli Sundaraiah.,going on to actively participate in the student movement in Gindi engineering college for which he was expelled from the college. He went on to become C.P.I's Kurnool district secretary and state Committee member in 1946.This paved the path for his integration with the armed squads of Telengana in the armed peasant struggle complying with the party request of working in Mahbobnagar forest. He was here arrested and imprisoned .After release from jail he contested from the Nandikotkur Assembly Constituency and elected for Madras Presidency. C.P. became one of the party's sub-committee member to get the indefinite fast onto death struggle of late Potti Srimamalu withdrawn and also fought for bringing water to Rayalaseema from Srikakulam project on River Krishna.
In 1964 he was arrested under the Defense of India Act for supporting
in 1962 war. C.P. was one of
the pioneers with T. Nagi Reddy and D.V. Rao to demarcate Communist movement in
Andhra Pradesh from neo- revisionist Communist
Party of India (Marxist) path. He
wrote many an article in organ Janaskti denouncing Nikita Khrushchev (Никита Хрущёв), and illuminating the path of Joseph Stalin (Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин ‘Russian’ იოსებ სტალინი
‘Georgian) and Mao. He waged a sustained struggle with other comrades to re-educate the rank and file of the party to refute the revisionist 'Madurai' document of the C.P.M. The majority of the rank and file of party members rupture from CPM revisionist line towards the revolutionary orientation of the Communist revolutionaries ,who gained a significant victory in the Palakollu plenum. China
CP was the equivalent of a sculptor or architect as a Marxist crusader against revisionism. He compiled a masterpiece "World Communist Movement-It's evolution along with other state Committee Manikonda Subba Rao. It very vividly and dialectically assessed the root causes of revisionism and deeply enlightened cadres to make a rupture from revisionism. During the period of the Great debate he made an intense study of the 9 comments published by the CCP and published the book 'The polemics between Russia-China." Here Khrushchev's revisionism was attacked in its very belly and the Sword of the Great Debate sharpened to the last core. Few Comrades ever in
revisionism so deeply in the backbone or delivering it such a critical blow. India
With the skill of a surgeon stitching wounds or architect designing a building he built the movement in
East Godavri district after 1970.
No doubt he was erroneously critical of the mass-line of Nagi Reddy -DV Rao
accusing them of legalism and surrendering from jail itself in 1969 where the
party split. Still some of the most articulate actions of self -defense were
displayed by the armed squads giving echoes of the planning and organization in
the Telengana armed struggle. Forest areas of Khammam ,Karimnagar, Warangal, East and West Godavri
were encompased. in a span of 7 years. Great
emphasis was placed on rectifying errors of left adventurism of Charu Mazumdar.
A review was made of the
Forest movement in Godavri. which summed up the legal work
explaining politics of armed struggle .There was mobilizing people on forest
issues, on landlord exploitation, usury and contractors exploitation, seizure
of surplus grains from the landlords, and illegally seized lands from the
In Murugu and Parakal taluk people came forward to ocupy forest lands.and illegally seized lands under the occupation of the landlords. In Bayyaram area of Ellundu Taluq people seized the surplus grains .In Yathalkuntha area of Palvancha Taluq, girijan mobilized themselves for the seizure of landlords which they had previously lost to them, defying the police and seizing their crops. In Pagideru area during famine conditions people came forward for the seizure of surplus grain. In Nugur Taluq people resisted the exploitation of Vajedu landlords.
The party won many militants combining the politics of armed struggle with the mobilization of people, immediate issues and resistance to landlord goondagiri, It paved the path for organizing village committees. Politics of armed struggle was now extended to a large scale traversing areas of Ellundu, Burgumpada, Palvancha, Manthena,Nugur and Prakala taluks.
In 1972 November-December, in Lothur Zone of Sompeta area ,about 200 people including women and children from 10 villages ,armed with traditional weapons seized crops from 19 areas and sowed crops on them. By 1974, 250 acres of land encompassing 30 villages’ standing crops were seized by the people. It was a shot in the arm to spread the people’s movement in neighboring villages giving great encouragement. The party gave the call on the Andhra-Orissa border and the Logam area of seizing the crops and the lands. In July August the Girijans occupied 25 acres of such land from the landlords First the party formed village committees .By 1974 250 acres of land encompassing 30 villages standing crops were seized by the people.
Most dialectically C.P. Reddy assessed that the people were not ready to participate in agrarian revolution. However subsequently great repression was unleashed and a sustained movement could not be built to combat it. Mistakenly the party thought it was ready to wage guerilla armed struggle—and depended on the strength of the armed squads.
We must give C.P. Reddy for making such bold criticism of the mistakes of the party in practicing the mass-line highlighting how often squad actions replaced people's initiative .It felt that though it's basic political line was correct the mass-line was not consistently practiced ,in formulating the demand of the people, in running the agitation on them, in conducting strike struggles, in organizing the mass organizations at the village level, in organizing the village youth in volunteer organizations, to sending the village youth to secret propaganda in the surrounding villages, in involving people in actions against the peoples enemies ,it could not say that all the zonal committees and squads implemented the line of the party on all occasions. There were times when implementing the above tasks, comrades depended mainly on the squad and not mainly on the people. When police repression was not so severe from 1970-72 left mistakes affected mass mobilization and mass work suffered .Only after the 1973 conference was the task of forming secret village committees and legal and illegal mass organizations like youth leagues or girijan associations undertaken seriously.
Overall the successes achieved were
1.In all areas where squads were functioning people mobilized themselves to occupy the forest banzars both barren and arable. 3 lakhs of banzar lands were occupied
2.In forest areas strike struggles were consistently carried for increased wages for all kinds of work.
3. In areas of work exploitation of patwaris, patels and forest contractors came to an end.
4. Tank binds and night schools were successfully constructed. Canals were dug to create water facilities to irrigate land..
5. People's initiative consciousness and resistance power gas grown with girijans being roused for politics of armed struggle and agrarian revolution.
6. Political level and striking capacity of the squads was enhanced. Great emphasis was placed on political education. with regular political classes conducted. In 1974-75 at the peak of police repression the squads heroically launched a counter offensive which greatly boosted self-confidence of members. The party and squad members escaped with virtually no casualties.
7. A stable mass base for the movement was constructed .The party line in forest are spread in 7 months from Etunagaram in Warangal district to Polawaram in West Godavri district with many village committees formed. In spite of 7 years of prolonged state repression the solid mass base sustained the movement, with squads and committees continuously operating.
8. Inspiration to the plains movement. The forest movement inspired a peasant movement in the surrounding plain regions of Telengana. The consistency, solidity and success of the movements in the forests to defy the administration shimmered its spark to the plain regions to boost struggles there.
However by 1975 repression intensified and movement in
received a major setback. It caused may comrades to desert the squads .It was
predominant in Khammam , Warangal
and Palvancha areas where many turned into police informers. Warangal
After emergency C.P.Reddy strived for unity with other sections. Like Kondapalli Seetharamiah, Devullapali Venkateswara Rao and Anand but failed to build a new re-organized party.
At one time in the late 1970’s CP Reddy group led the biggest All-India movement .It was reflected in the All-India rallies at Delhi in 1989 and 1990 led by what was the C.P.I.(M.L.) Resistance group, which mobilized over 70000 people. They literally illuminated the capital with the flame of red resistance reverberating slogans paying homage to C.P. Reddy and many other martyrs.
Seeds were also sown for the development of mass organization sin all spheres of society and the most remarkable one was the pioneering the 1st women's revolutionary organization called the 'People's Organization of Women. "One can never forget the days the Progressive Democrat Students Union thrived, particularly in mid 1970's. He also pioneered the formation of
's first revolutionary trade
Union Centre-The Indian Federation of trade Unions. CP was also popular in India Maharashtra where students Organization PRAVIS supported
his line which was earlier PROYOM. No revolutionary party made a greater dent
in the working class movement than the group led by C.P. Reddy. Mass
organizations were built all around . Examples are the Anuyodhya, Progressive
Democratic Students Union and Progressive youth League in Andhra Pradesh, the
Kirti Kisan Union and Punjab Students Union in India Punjab,
the Bhoomihan Kisan Sangharsh commitee in Uttar Pradesh,the Indian Federation
of Trade Unions, the Pragitisheel Vidhyarti Sanghatana, Navnirman Sanskritik
Manch and Kashtakari Sanghtana in Maharashtra etc.
However C.P.Reddy made serious errors in the course of his political career .It had it's origin in the violation of mass line of T. Nagi Reddy -D.V. Rao from 1969 itself in the APCCCR. In the main they were participating in parliamentary elections, economist practice in mass organizations, opportunist merger and split with Satyanaryan Singh and earlier advocating left adventurist squad actions in the time of Nagi-Reddy-DV Rao .In 1969 he carried out actions without the consent of the leadership of the Andhra Pradesh Committee of Communist Revolutionaries (APCCR) led by Nagi-Reddy-DV Rao He hurried unity with S.N.Singh in 1974 and supported a liquidationist position of supporting movement of Jayaprakash Narayan. In 1977 he pushed for electoral participation without adequate development of the party organization which was the breeding ground of right liquidationism. Towards the end of his life he was unable to combat personality cult trends from infecting the party which led to revolt of comrades like Pyla Vasudeva Rao and thus splits.
After death of C.P. in 1984 K.Ramchandran was elected the new secretary of what was now called the C.P.I.(M.L.) Resistance group. Sadly right opportunist trends cropped up amongst with the group which pursued Semi-Ambedkarist path, resorted to open party functioning, established opportunist mergers and splits with other sections of the revolutionary camp often resulting in slandering genuine revolutionaries. The right opportunist formation and practice of C.P.I.(M.L.) Janashakti was an ideal illustration of this, reminiscent of cake being baked and then cut up into slices. In contrast to rectify errors the C.P.I.(M.L) New Democracy group is making an invaluable contribution to genuinely upholding the positive aspects of C.P.Reddy's line and practice. It is combating fascism in its very backyard and innovating movements to liberate dalits like the Zameen Prapti Sangharsh commitee in
Punjab. as well as consolidate all-India Organizations of
peasants and workers.
I recommend readers to critically read the works of Chandra Pulla Reddy whatever the aberrations which is part of the Marxist-Leninist treasure house. I cant forget my enthusiasm to study his work as a student and the interest of a fellow girl comrade to borrow a set of a volume of his writings. I am sorry not to have attended a single meeting commemorating his birth centenary. I also recommend readers to read the centenary tribute of C.P. Reddy in Rising New Democracy of the New Democracy section led by Chandrama and the tribute in organ 'New Democracy 'in 2013.
We should inscribe in golden letters the names of the martyrs who upheld C.P. Reddy's legacy. They include Neelam Ramchandriah, Ram Narsayya, Jampala Prasad in the 1970's. Linganna,
Ravi and Rama Rao were martyred in recent
times but till their last breadth although expiring over 3 decades after C.P. Reddy's
death pledged to tread his path. Many martyrs also dipped their blood valiantly
against the Khalistanis in Punjab like Baldev
Singh Mann, Jaimal Singh Padda, Sarabjeet Singh Gyan Singh Sangha etc.